أخر المواضيع

الاثنين، 28 فبراير، 2011

انتشار الاضطرابات العقلية في أمريكا

Mental Disorders in America

Mental disorders are common in the United States and internationally. An estimated 26.2 percent of Americans ages 18 and older — about one in four adults — suffer from a diagnosable mental disorder in a given year.1 When applied to the 2004 U.S. Census residential population estimate for ages 18 and older, this figure translates to 57.7 million people.2 Even though mental disorders are widespread in the population, the main burden of illness is concentrated in a much smaller proportion — about 6 percent, or 1 in 17 — who suffer from a serious mental illness.1 In addition, mental disorders are the leading cause of disability in the U.S. and Canada.3 Many people suffer from more than one mental disorder at a given time. Nearly half (45 percent) of those with any mental disorder meet criteria for 2 or more disorders, with severity strongly related to comorbidity.1
In the U.S., mental disorders are diagnosed based on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth edition (DSM-IV).4

Mood Disorders

  • Approximately 20.9 million American adults, or about 9.5 percent of the U.S. population age 18 and older in a given year, have a mood disorder.1,2
  • The median age of onset for mood disorders is 30 years.5
  • Depressive disorders often co-occur with anxiety disorders and substance abuse.5

Major Depressive Disorder

  • Major Depressive Disorder is the leading cause of disability in the U.S. for ages 15-44.3
  • Major depressive disorder affects approximately 14.8 million American adults, or about 6.7 percent of the U.S. population age 18 and older in a given year.1, 2
  • While major depressive disorder can develop at any age, the median age at onset is 32.5
  • Major depressive disorder is more prevalent in women than in men.6

Dysthymic Disorder

  • Symptoms of dysthymic disorder (chronic, mild depression) must persist for at least two years in adults (one year in children) to meet criteria for the diagnosis. Dysthymic disorder affects approximately 1.5 percent of the U.S. population age 18 and older in a given year.1, This figure translates to about 3.3 million American adults.2
  • The median age of onset of dysthymic disorder is 31.1

Bipolar Disorder

  • Bipolar disorder affects approximately 5.7 million American adults, or about 2.6 percent of the U.S. population age 18 and older in a given year.1, 2
  • The median age of onset for bipolar disorders is 25 years.5

Suicide

  • In 2006, 33,300 (approximately 11 per 100,000) people died by suicide in the U.S.7
  • More than 90 percent of people who kill themselves have a diagnosable mental disorder, most commonly a depressive disorder or a substance abuse disorder.8
  • The highest suicide rates in the U.S. are found in white men over age 85.9
  • Four times as many men as women die by suicide9; however, women attempt suicide two to three times as often as men.10

Schizophrenia

  • Approximately 2.4 million American adults, or about 1.1 percent of the population age 18 and older in a given year,11, 2 have schizophrenia.
  • Schizophrenia affects men and women with equal frequency.12
  • Schizophrenia often first appears in men in their late teens or early twenties. In contrast, women are generally affected in their twenties or early thirties.12

Anxiety Disorders

Anxiety disorders include panic disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, and phobias (social phobia, agoraphobia, and specific phobia).
  • Approximately 40 million American adults ages 18 and older, or about 18.1 percent of people in this age group in a given year, have an anxiety disorder.1,2
  • Anxiety disorders frequently co-occur with depressive disorders or substance abuse.1
  • Most people with one anxiety disorder also have another anxiety disorder. Nearly three-quarters of those with an anxiety disorder will have their first episode by age 21.5 5

Panic Disorder

  • Approximately 6 million American adults ages 18 and older, or about 2.7 percent of people in this age group in a given year, have panic disorder.1, 2
  • Panic disorder typically develops in early adulthood (median age of onset is 24), but the age of onset extends throughout adulthood.5
  • About one in three people with panic disorder develops agoraphobia, a condition in which the individual becomes afraid of being in any place or situation where escape might be difficult or help unavailable in the event of a panic attack.12

Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD)

  • Approximately 2.2 million American adults age 18 and older, or about 1.0 percent of people in this age group in a given year, have OCD.1, 2
  • The first symptoms of OCD often begin during childhood or adolescence, however, the median age of onset is 19.5

Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)

  • Approximately 7.7 million American adults age 18 and older, or about 3.5 percent of people in this age group in a given year, have PTSD.1, 2
  • PTSD can develop at any age, including childhood, but research shows that the median age of onset is 23 years.5
  • About 19 percent of Vietnam veterans experienced PTSD at some point after the war.13 The disorder also frequently occurs after violent personal assaults such as rape, mugging, or domestic violence; terrorism; natural or human-caused disasters; and accidents.

Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD)

  • Approximately 6.8 million American adults, or about 3.1 percent of people age 18 and over, have GAD in a given year.1, 2
  • GAD can begin across the life cycle, though the median age of onset is 31 years old.5

Social Phobia

  • Approximately 15 million American adults age 18 and over, or about 6.8 percent of people in this age group in a given year, have social phobia.1
  • Social phobia begins in childhood or adolescence, typically around 13 years of age.5

Agoraphobia

Agoraphobia involves intense fear and anxiety of any place or situation where escape might be difficult, leading to avoidance of situations such as being alone outside of the home; traveling in a car, bus, or airplane; or being in a crowded area.5
  • Approximately 1.8 million American adults age 18 and over, or about 0.8 percent of people in this age group in a given year, have agoraphobia without a history of panic disorder.1, 2
  • The median age of onset of agoraphobia is 20 years of age.5

Specific Phobia

Specific phobia involves marked and persistent fear and avoidance of a specific object or situation.
  • Approximately 19.2 million American adults age 18 and over, or about 8.7 percent of people in this age group in a given year, have some type of specific phobia.1, 2
  • Specific phobia typically begins in childhood; the median age of onset is seven years.5

Eating Disorders

The three main types of eating disorders are anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and binge-eating disorder.
  • In their lifetime, an estimated 0.6 percent of the adult population in the U.S. will suffer from anorexia, 1.0 percent from bulimia, and 2.8 percent from a binge eating disorder. 14
  • Women are much more likely than males to develop an eating disorder. They are three times as likely to experience anorexia (0.9 percent of women vs. 0.3 percent of men) and bulimia (1.5 percent of women vs. 0.5 percent of men) during their life. They are also 75 percent more likely to have a binge eating disorder (3.5 percent of women vs. 2.0 percent of men).14
  • The mortality rate among people with anorexia has been estimated at 0.56 percent per year, or approximately 5.6 percent per decade, which is about 12 times higher than the annual death rate due to all causes of death among females ages 15-24 in the general population.15

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

  • ADHD, one of the most common mental disorders in children and adolescents, also affects an estimated 4.1 percent of adults, ages 18-44, in a given year.1
  • ADHD usually becomes evident in preschool or early elementary years. The median age of onset of ADHD is seven years, although the disorder can persist into adolescence and occasionally into adulthood.5

Autism

Autism is part of a group of disorders called autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), also known as pervasive developmental disorders. ASDs range in severity, with autism being the most debilitating form while other disorders, such as Asperger syndrome, produce milder symptoms.
  • Estimating the prevalence of autism is difficult and controversial due to differences in the ways that cases are identified and defined, differences in study methods, and changes in diagnostic criteria. A recent study by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) reported the prevalence of autism among 8 year-olds to be about 1 in 110.16
  • Autism and other ASDs develop in childhood and generally are diagnosed by age three.17
  • Autism is about four times more common in boys than girls. Girls with the disorder, however, tend to have more severe symptoms and greater cognitive impairment.16,17

Personality Disorders

Personality disorders represent "an enduring pattern of inner experience and behavior that deviates markedly from the expectations of the culture of the individual who exhibits it."4 These patterns tend to be fixed and consistent across situations and are typically perceived to be appropriate by the individual even though they may markedly affect their day-to-day life in negative ways. Among American adults ages 18 and over, an estimated 9.1% have a diagnosable personality disorder.18 Several more common personality disorders include:

Antisocial Personality Disorder

Antisocial personality disorder is characterized by an individual's disregard for social rules and cultural norms, impulsive behavior, and indifference to the rights and feelings of others.
  • Approximately 1.0 percent of people aged 18 or over have antisocial personality disorder.18

Avoidant Personality Disorder

Avoidant personality disorder is characterized by extreme social inhibition, sensitivity to negative evaluation, and feelings of inadequacy. Individuals with avoidant personality disorder frequently avoid social interaction for fear of being ridiculed, humiliated, or disliked.
  • An estimated 5.2 percent of people age 18 or older have an avoidant personality disorder.18

Borderline Personality Disorder

Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) is defined by the DSM-IV as "a pervasive pattern of instability of interpersonal relationships, self-image and affects, as well as marked impulsivity, beginning by early adulthood and present in a variety of contexts.”
  • Approximately 1.6 percent of Americans age 18 or older have BPD.18

المصدر /




الأحد، 27 فبراير، 2011

Brain-Imaging in Depressed Moms Shows Blunted Response to Crying Infant

But the response is muted rather than negative, study finds

Posted: February 26, 2011

SATURDAY, Feb. 26 (HealthDay News) -- Armed with brain scans, researchers have discovered bawling babies trigger a far more muted response in the brains of depressed mothers than in mothers who aren't depressed.
Click here to find out more!

Contrary to a previous theory, "it looks as though depressed mothers are not responding in a more negative way than non-depressed mothers. What we saw was really more of a lack of responding in a positive way," said study lead author Heidemarie K. Laurent in a news release from the University of Oregon.
Laurent is an assistant professor at the University of Wyoming, but she worked on the study as a postdoctoral researcher at the University of Oregon.
The study, which appears online in the journal Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience, is the first to examine how the brains of depressed women responded to the crying of babies.
In total, the researchers studied the brains of 22 women using functional magnetic resonance imaging, which measures brain activity through blood flow changes. The women were all first-time mothers with 18-month-old babies

Study finds many graphic YouTube self-harm videos

February 21, 2011, Associated Press
CHICAGO - YouTube videos on cutting and other self-injury methods are an alarming new trend, attract millions of hits and could serve as a how-to for troubled viewers, a study warns.
Many videos show bloody live enactments or graphic photos of people cutting their arms or legs with razors or other sharp objects, the study found. Many also glamorize self-injury and few videos discourage it, the study authors said.
They also feature haunting music and rich imagery that may attract young self-injurers and trigger the behavior, especially in those who have just started to self-injure, the authors suggest.
Canadian psychologist Stephen Lewis, a study co-author, said he found more than 5,000 YouTube videos on self-injury. The study focused on 100 videos the authors found in December 2009. Their analysis was published online Monday in Pediatrics.
The 100 videos were viewed more than 2 million times and generated many online comments.
Parents and mental health professionals should be aware of the YouTube postings and that the videos might be perpetuating the problem, said Lewis, an assistant professor at the University of Guelph in Ontario.
The study's authors also recommended that YouTube provide helpful resources or links when people enter search terms for "self-injury." A company spokeswoman said YouTube is looking into the feasibility of the suggestion

بدء استقبال طلبات الالتحاق ببرنامج علم النفس السريري بجامعة الدمام



أعلنت جامعة الدمام ممثلة بعمادة الدراسات العليا بالجامعة عن فتح باب القبول في عدد من برامج الدراسات العليا للعام الجامعي 1432/1433هـ وذلك ابتداءً من يوم السبت الموافق 16/3/ 1432هـ الموافق 19/2/2011م وحتى نهاية دوام يوم السبت الموافق23/3/1432هـ الموافق 26/2/2011م .
ودعت الراغبين في التقدم بأن يحضروا المستندات المطلوبة وهي استمارة طلب
الالتحاق بعد تعبئتها حيث يمكن الحصول عليه من موقع الطلبات أو من موقع الدمام - الدراسات العليا "www.ud.edu.sa" وصوره مصدقه من السجل الأكاديمي للدرجة السابقة وصورة مصدقه من وثيقة التخرج للدرجة السابقة وصورة من بطاقة الأحوال أو بطاقة العائلة وتوصيتان علميتان على الأقل وإحضار نسختين من المستندات والأصل للمطابقة.

وأوضح عميد الدراسات العليا الدكتور عادل بن إبراهيم العفالق أن شروط التقدم تشمل أن يكون المتقدم سعودي الجنسية أو حاصل على منحه دراسية رسمية من غير السعوديين وأن يكون حاصلا على الدرجة العلمية المؤهلة للتقدم للبرنامج من جهة معترف بها وأن يكون حسن السيرة والسلوك ولائقا طبياً وموافقة من مرجعه على الدراسة إن كان موظفاً وأن لا يقل معدله العام في الدرجة المؤهلة للتقدم عن جيد جداً ويجوز التقدم للقبول بالماجستير لمن هو حاصل على تقدير جيد مرتفع في المعدل العام على أن لا يقل معدله في مواد التخصص عن جيد جداً لكل برنامج وان يجتاز اختبارات القبول والمقابلة الشخصية التي تحددها الكلية وتحقيق الشروط الخاصة لكل برنامج.

ودعت عمادة الدراسات العليا الراغبين للتقدم لتلك البرامج الالتزام بالشروط العامة للقبول الواردة في اللائحة الموحدة للجامعات إضافة إلى الشروط الخاصة لكل برنامج وهي برامج الدكتوراه في كلية الطب في علم تخصص وظائف الأعضاء وبرامج الزمالة في تخصص الأشعة والعيون وجراحة المخ والأعصاب والأحياء الدقيقة وبرامج الماجستير في علم وظائف الأعضاء والتشريح وعلم
النفس السريري والصحة المهنية وذلك متاح للجنسين حيث يتم التقديم بمقر الجامعة."

علماً بان هذه هي السنة الثانية التي يتم قبول الطلاب بتخصص علم
النفس السريري

للمزيد :
اضغط هنا

المصدر /


وظائف علم نفس وتربية خاصه معيدين ومعيدات سعوديين بجامعة طيبة



تستقبل جامعة طيبة بالمدينة المنورة بمقرها وفروعها ابتداء من السبت المقبل حتى الأربعاء الموافق 4/4/1432هـ طلبات وظائف معيدين ومعيدات للسعوديين المتوفرة لديها، فيما دعت الراغبين لشغلها ممن تتوفر لديهم الشروط للتقديم إلكترونياً عبر موقع الجامعة http://www.taibahu.edu.sa/.

وبين مدير الجامعة الدكتور منصور بن محمد النزهة أن الجامعة تسعى ضمن خططها لهذا العام لاستقطاب العديد من أعضاء وعضوات هيئة التدريس من أجل المساهمة في العملية التعليمية، بما يتوافق مع تطلعات القيادة الرشيدة أيدها الله، والعمل على ضم الكفاءات الوطنية الشابة التي ستساهم في تطوير الحراك العلمي بالجامعة.

وأوضح أن التقديم على الوظائف المعلنة يشمل (23) كلية، كما يجب على المتقدم التقيد بالشروط اللازم توفرها في المتقدم وهي: أن يكون سعودي الجنسية، وألا يقل معدله عن جيد جداً في مرحلة البكالوريوس، وألا يزيد عمره عن (30) سنة، وألا يكون قد مضى على حصوله على البكالوريوس أكثر من سنتين في العلوم النظرية والأدبية والتربوية، وثلاث سنوات للتخصصات العلمية ومعادلة الشهادة إذا كانت من جامعة غير سعودية.

وبين الدكتور النزهة أنه يجب على المتقدم إرفاق المستندات المطلوبة وهي: صورة من شهادة البكالوريوس، وصورة من السجل الأكاديمي لكشف الدرجات، وصورة من شهادة إتمام الامتياز للتخصصات الطبية، وثلاثة توصيات علمية، وصورة من بطاقة الأحوال المدنية أو صورة من بطاقة العائلة.

الاحتياج الخاص بعلم النفس والتربية الخاصه في الجدول رقم 20
للمزيد هنا

المصدر /






الاثنين، 21 فبراير، 2011

مطلوب اخصائيات نفسيات و اجتماعيات لمركز لرعاية الأيتام


 مطلوب

لمؤسسة خيرية لرعاية الأيتام

اخصائيات نفسيات و اجتماعيات

للتواصل و الاستفسار /

4559034

السبت، 19 فبراير، 2011

Hand Movements Indicate ADHD Severity




By Rick Nauert PhD Senior News EditorReviewed by John M. Grohol, Psy.D. on February 16, 2011
A child’s ability to control simple finger movements may be used as a predictor for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), suggest two neurological research efforts.
The studies, published in the journal Neurology, measure the ability of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) to control impulsive movements (motor control).
This new measurement of symptoms may help experts improve their understanding of the neurobiology of ADHD, inform prognosis and guide treatments.
In one of two studies, children with ADHD performed a finger-tapping task. Any unintentional “overflow” movements occurring on the opposite hand were noted.
Children with ADHD showed more than twice the amount of overflow than typically developing children. This is the first time that scientists have been able to quantify the degree to which ADHD is associated with a failure in motor control.
The single most common child behavioral diagnosis, ADHD is a highly prevalent developmental disorder characterized by inattentiveness, hyperactivity and impulsivity

How Lithium Works Finally Explained

By Rick Nauert PhD Senior News EditorReviewed by John M. Grohol, Psy.D. on February 17, 2011
 
Despite a remarkable lifespan of over 70 years, lithium continues to be an effective treatment for the manic and depressive episodes of bipolar disorder.
Researchers are only now beginning to understand how lithium works. Ongoing research now suggests that lithium can help restore brain volume deficits.
Only in the past 15 years have the molecular mechanisms underlying the treatment of bipolar disorder become known.
During this time frame studies conducted on animals began to identify neuroprotective and perhaps neurotrophic effects of this important medication.
The identification of these molecular actions of lithium coincided with the discovery of regional brain volume deficits in imaging studies of people with bipolar disorder.
In particular, a generation of research studies identified alterations, predominately reductions, in the size of brain regions involved in mood regulation. These studies also began to provide hints that some of the treatments for bipolar disorder would increase the volumes of these brain regions.
In a massive research effort published in Biological Psychiatry, eleven international research groups collaborated to pool brain imaging data from adults with bipolar disorder. This allowed them to perform a mega-analysis to evaluate the differences in brain structure between individuals with bipolar disorder and healthy comparison subjects.
They found that individuals with bipolar disorder had increased right lateral ventricular, left temporal lobe, and right putamen volumes.
Individuals with bipolar disorder who were not taking lithium had a reduction in cerebral and hippocampal volumes compared with healthy comparison subjects.
Importantly, however, bipolar patients taking lithium displayed significantly increased hippocampal and amygdala volume compared with patients not treated with lithium and healthy comparison subjects.
Cerebral volume reduction was also significantly associated with illness duration in bipolar individuals.
“This important mega-analysis provides strong support for regional brain structural alterations associated with bipolar disorder, but also sends a signal of hope that treatments for this disorder may reduce some of these deficits,” commented Dr. John Krystal, Editor of Biological Psychiatry.

 المصدر /


جستن تعقد الاجتماع السادس عشر للجمعية العمومية وانتخاب مجلس إدارة جديد للدورة العاشرة اليوم

تعقد الجمعية السعودية للعلوم التربوية والنفسية (جستن)، الاجتماع العادي السادس عشر للجمعية العمومية، وذلك
لمناقشة التقرير الإداري والمالي، وانتخاب مجلس إدارة جديد للدورة العاشرة، مساء السبت 16/3/ 1432هـ الموافق
19/ 2/ 2011م؛ في تمام الساعة الثامنة مساءً في القاعة رقم (7أ) أمام كلية الآداب بجامعة الملك سعود.
وتنقل وقائع الاجتماع إلى الأخوات عبر الدائرة التلفزيونية المغلقة بمركز الدراسات الجامعية بعليشة، بوابة (3)،

مبنى (26)، الدور الأرضي، قاعة رقم (55). علماً بأن نماذج الاشتراك والتجديد متوفرة في مقر الجمعية (جستن)
بكلية التربية ـ جامعة الملك سعود أو لدى فروع الجمعية في كل من المدينة المنورة، مكة المكرمة، الدمام، الأحساء،
القصيم، الباحة، أبها.

المصدر /



الخميس، 17 فبراير، 2011

Note taking in Session By Judith Beck


Thursday, December 17th, 2009
By judith Beck

Recently, there’s been an interesting discussion on the Academy of Cognitive Therapy listserv about the therapy notes patients take home with them to review. Here’s how I make sure a patient is able to remember important ideas we discussed in treatment, specifically the changes a patient makes in his thinking:
Generally, when I ascertain that the patient has modified his thinking during a session (e.g., following Socratic questioning, behavioral experiments, roleplaying, etc.), I’ll ask the patient for a summary. I might say:
• Can you summarize what we just talked about?
• What do you think it would be important for you to remember this week?
• What do you think the main message is?
If the patient comes up with a good summary, I positively reinforce him and ask whether he wants to write it down or if he would like me to do so. If his summary is not quite on point, I usually offer a revised version and ask the patient whether he thinks it might be helpful to remember it this latter way. If he agrees, he or I will write the summary down. At that point or later on in the session, I will ask the patient how likely it is that he will read these important therapy notes every day at home. If he’s not highly likely, I’ll ask him about what might get in the way.
I’ve found that most patients just don’t learn the skill of writing cogent summaries. They rarely write down complete ideas and they usually add in extraneous or less important material which dilutes what is really important; that’s why I’m nicely directive about what is written down. I want to be certain the patient has good notes to read this week and ten years from now, if a similar problem arises.


المصدر /



الأربعاء، 16 فبراير، 2011

'Love' Hormone Has a Dark Side


Oxytocin may accentuate social tendencies for good or ill



By Bruce Bower, Science News
SAN ANTONIO—Oxytocin, a hormone with a rosy reputation for getting people to love, trust and generally make nice with one another, can get down and dirty, according to evidence presented on January 28 at the annual meeting of the Society for Personality and Social Psychology.
Click here to find out more!

This brain-altering substance apparently amplifies whatever social proclivities a person already possesses, whether positive or negative, says psychologist Jennifer Bartz of Mount Sinai School of Medicine in New York City.
Previous work has shown that a nasal blast of the hormone encourages a usually trusting person to become more trusting (SN Online: 5/21/08), but now Bartz and her colleagues find that it also makes a highly suspicious person more uncooperative and hostile than ever.
“Oxytocin does not simply make everyone feel more secure, trusting and prosocial,” Bartz says.
These new results raise concerns about plans by some researchers to administer oxytocin to people with autism and other psychiatric conditions that include social difficulties, she adds

الأحد، 13 فبراير، 2011

ملخص دراسة : Psychiatric syndromes comorbid with mental retardation


Psychiatric syndromes comorbid with mental retardation:

Differences in cognitive and adaptive skills


Serafino Buono
Santo F. Di Nuovo

University of Catania, Faculty of Education, 2, Ofelia, 95124 Catania, Italy
Scientific Research Institute for Diagnosis and Therapy IRCCS Oasi, 73, Conte Ruggero 94018 Troina, Italy

Abstract

The study concerns the specific cognitive and adaptive skills of persons dually diagnosed with mental retardation (MR) and comorbid pathologies, as schizophrenia, personality and mood disorders, pervasive developmental disorders, epilepsy and ADHD. The sample was composed of 182 subjects, diagnosed as mild or moderate MR level, age range from 6 years 8 months to 50 years 2 months, mean age 17.1 (standard deviation 7.9). All the subjects were inpatients in a specialized structure for the diagnosis and the
treatment of MR. The instruments of the study were Wechsler Intelligence Scale (WAIS-R or WISC-R according to the chronological age of subjects) and Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scale (VABS). Results confirm that comorbidity is a factor differentiating among mentally retarded subjects. Both verbal processes requiring memory retrieval and visuo-spatial processes are involved as differentiating features. ADHD strongly increases the impairment of cognitive skills, while behavioral disorders are less damaging in MR performance. In adult samples, the differentiating role of comorbid syndromes in MR individuals is reduced for cognitive skills, and limited to some basic verbal abilities, more impaired in mood disorder, less in schizophrenic disorder.The areas of adaptation and socialization, motor and daily living skills, are impaired more in generalized development disturbances than in comorbid schizophrenic and personality and mood disorders. An accurate psychological assessment of dual diagnoses is useful in detecting the specific underlying processes differentiating the comorbid syndromes, and in planning an appropriate rehabilitative treatment.
.


Journal of Psychiatric Research 41 (2007) 795–800


السبت، 12 فبراير، 2011

Defects in Brain Pathways Linked to Anxiety


By Rick Nauert PhD Senior News Editor
Reviewed by John M. Grohol, Psy.D. on February 11, 2011
 

Researchers believe they have discovered a neural explanation for why some individuals are more anxiety-prone than others.
University of California, Berkeley scientists believe chinks in our brain circuitry could be the answer.
Their findings, published in the journal Neuron may pave the way for more targeted treatment of chronic fear and anxiety disorders.
Such conditions affect at least 25 million Americans and include panic attacks, social phobias, obsessive-compulsive behavior and post-traumatic stress disorder.
In the brain imaging study, researchers from UC Berkeley and Cambridge University discovered two distinct neural pathways that play a role in whether we develop and overcome fears. The first involves an overactive amygdala, which is home to the brain’s primal fight-or-flight reflex and plays a role in developing specific phobias.
The second involves activity in the ventral prefrontal cortex, a neural region that helps us to overcome our fears and worries. Some participants were able to mobilize their ventral prefrontal cortex to reduce their fear responses even while negative events were still occurring, the study found.
“This finding is important because it suggests some people may be able to use this ventral frontal part of the brain to regulate their fear responses – even in situations where stressful or dangerous events are ongoing,” said UC Berkeley psychologist Dr. Sonia Bishop, lead author of the paper.
“If we can train those individuals who are not naturally good at this to be able to do this, we may be able to help chronically anxious individuals as well as those who live in situations where they are exposed to dangerous or stressful situations over a long time frame,” Bishop added.
Bishop and her team used functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) to examine the brains of 23 healthy adults. As their brains were scanned, participants viewed various scenarios in which a virtual figure was seen in a computerized room.
In one room, the figure would place his hands over his ears before a loud scream was sounded. But in another room, the gesture did not predict when the scream would occur. This placed volunteers in a sustained state of anticipation.
Participants who showed overactivity in the amygdala developed much stronger fear responses to gestures that predicted screams. A second entirely separate risk factor turned out to be failure to activate the ventral prefrontal cortex.
Researchers found that participants who were able to activate this region were much more capable of decreasing their fear responses, even before the screams stopped.
The discovery that there is not one, but two routes in the brain circuitry that lead to heightened fear or anxiety is a key finding, the researchers said, and it offers hope for new targeted treatment approaches.
“Some individuals with anxiety disorders are helped more by cognitive therapies, while others are helped more by drug treatments,” Bishop said.
“If we know which of these neural vulnerabilities a patient has, we may be able to predict what treatment is most likely to be of help.”


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ورشة عمل أساليب التعامل السلوكي و التربوي مع ذوي اضطراب فرط الحركة و تشتت الانتباه في ابريل 2011


تهتم ورشة العمل بطرح مجموعة من المواضيع في مجال اضطراب فرط الحركة ونقص الانتباه ، وترتكز على عدة محاور يتناول أولها معلومات عامة لفهم طرق التعامل مع اضطراب نقص الانتباه وفرط الحركة الزائد ADHD من خلال إلقاء الضوء على تعريفه، خصائصه، نسبته، أسبابه وأساليب تشخيصه، بينما يتعرض المحور الثاني للورشة لأساليب التعامل مع تحديات سلوك اضطراب نقص الانتباه وفرط الحركة الزائد ADHD من خلال مجموعة ارتكازات منها أساليب إدارة الصف وتطبيقات الضبط، الوقاية أو التقليل من حدوث السلوك غير المرغوب فيه خلال أوقات التحول والأوقات الأقل تنظيما، إدارة السلوك الفردي والتدخل والدعم، استراتيجيات لزيادة مهارات الاستماع وإتباع التعليمات وأخيرا تسليط الضوء على استراتيجيات التنظيم والحفاظ على انتباه الطالب، ومن خلال المحور الثالث للورشة للاستراتيجيات الأكاديمية والتعليمية والدعم سيتم مناقشة سبل الوصول للطالب من خلال استخدام طريقة التدريس المتعددة باستخدام طرق متعددة الحواس، آليات الوصول للطالب من خلال طريقته في التعلم وتعدد الذكاء، فوائد التدريس التعاوني لذوي اضطراب فرط الحركة ونقص الانتباه ، مهارات التنظيم والإدارة الذاتية والتعلم، استراتيجيات التعلم والدراسة ومهارات القراءة والفهم والكتابة. وفي المحور الرابع للورشة سيتم عرض لـ قصص واقعية ودراسة حالة من خلال قصة أحد أولياء الأمور: ماذا يحتاج كل متخصص أن يسمع من ولي الأمر، دراسة حالة لطالبين وتطبيق عملي لكيفية التدخل، العمل الجماعي ومسؤولية الوالدين والمدرسة لمساعدة الطالب، مناقشة أسلوب فريق العمل لنجاح التعاون والتواصل والدعم الشامل( دور الوالدين في الفريق- دور المربين- دور الطبيب- دور فريق متعدد التخصصات في التدخل)، توثيق المدرسة والتواصل مع الأطباء لمن يستخدم العلاج من ذوي اضطراب فرط الحركة ونقص الانتباه ، وتختتم الورشة بعرض نماذج عالمية لتعليم ذوي اضطراب نقص الانتباه وفرط الحركة الزائد ADHD.
د.خالد عبدالعزيز الحمد
أستاذ مساعد بالتربية الخاصة
كلية التربية جامعة الملك سعود
الزمان: 4 – 5 أبريل.
المكان: مركز الأمير سلمان لأبحاث الإعاقة.

المصدر /