أخر المواضيع

الخميس، 14 يناير، 2016

أربع أسباب رئيسية تجعل الجدات تتعاملن بشكل مختلف مع أحفادهن


أربع أسباب رئيسية تجعل الجدات تتعاملن بشكل مختلف مع أحفادهن


من خلال خبرة الكاتب، وهو البروفيسور ليون سيلتزر (Seltzer,2016) ، فإنه يسهل على الجدات حب أحفادهم وتحملهم أكثر من أبنائهم، كما يسهل على الأحفاد البوح بشؤونهم وأسرارهم لجداتهم - وأجدادهم بدرجة أقل - مقارنة بوالديهم، وهو يقترح أربع أسباب لذلك: 

1- كلما تقدم العمر، ازداد النضج والمرونة. 
مع تقدم الإنسان في العمر، يبدأ في التكيف مع العالم كما هو لا كما يريد له أن يكون، وبالتالي يفقد المرء الكثير من تعنته وعناده بمرور الزمن، وتقل توقعاته من الآخرين، ولذا فإن الأجداد يبدأون في النظر إلى سلوكيات أحفادهم الخاطئة بنظرة أقل قسوة مما كانت عليه مع أبنائهم.

2- انتهى الدور التربوي وحان وقت الاستمتاع! 
ليس من السهل دوماً التعامل مع الأطفال، فهم يخطئون كثيرًا ويرفضون الاستجابة وقد يختبرون غضبك، ولكن هذا الدور لم يعد دور الجدة وإنما دور الأم! فالجدة ليست ملزمة بتربية أحفادها والتعامل معهم في أسوأ أحوالهم، ومن ثم فهي تستطيع أن تكون أكثر مرونة وتساهلُا، وبالتالي يمكنها الاسترخاء والتمتع بالأشياء الظريفة التي يقولها ويفعلها الأحفاد. 

3- الجدة تعمل جاهدة للحصول على حب أحفادها لأنها تقع في المرتبة الثانية!
إن الأطفال يحبون والديهم، ويطورون حالة من التعلق والارتباط بهم، بغض النظر عن الطريقة التي يعامل بها الوالدين أبناءهم، فقد وجد أن الأطفال ممن لديهم والدين مسيئين عاطفيًا أو نفسيًا أو جنسيًا يتعلقون بوالديهم أيضًا وربما بشكل أكبر من غيرهم من الأطفال!
الأمر يختلف بالنسبة للجدة، حيث لا توجد بينها وبين الحفيد أي علاقة اعتمادية أو أساسية بالنسبة له، وبالتالي فإن على الجدة أن تعمل جاهدة للحصول على محبة الحفيد وايجاد علاقة وثيقة به، ولذا يشاع عن الجدات عادتهم في تدليل أحفادهم بإفراط سواءً بالهدايا أوالمال أوالنزهات.

فلا عجب إذن أن يجد الوالدان نفسهما بحاجة لوضع حدود لهذا الدلال الذي يصعب عليهما عملية التربية، كما قد يجعل الوالدين يشعران بالغيظ من الجد الذي يقدم للحفيد من المحبة والدلال مالم يقدمه للأب أو الأم حين كانا صغارًا. 

4- فرصة لإصلاح الأخطاء
من الشائع أن يعود الوالدين للتفكير في أخطائهم الماضية التي ارتكباها خلال تربية أبنائهم، ومن ثم فقد يجدون في تدليل أحفادهم الفرصة للتعويض عن تلك الأخطاء وتقديم المزيد من المحبة والتفهم مما يصب في صالح الحفيد. 



ملخص مقالة مترجمة من مجلة Psychology Today 




الأربعاء، 9 نوفمبر، 2011

ورش العمل بمركر الأمير سلمان بأبحاث الاعاقة لعام 2012م



للمزيد حول البرنامج الاكاديمي لهذا العام اضغط هنا



The 1st Saudi ADHD Conference & Workshops, A Comprehensive Approach

The Mental Health Division, Department of Medicine, King Abdulaziz Medical City in collaboration with the Postgraduate Education & Academic Affairs of King Saud bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences will host the “The 1st Saudi ADHD Conference & Workshops, A Comprehensive Approach” on 6-7 December 2011 (conference) at the Riyadh Marriott Hotel and 5 & 8 December 2011 (workshops) at the Postgraduate Training Center – KSAU-HS.

The activity will be accredited with CME hours from Saudi Commission for Health Specialties.
You may also visit the event’s website for additional information: http://www.1stadhd-symposium.com/

Register now by sending us the attached Registration Form duly filled-up together with the payment of the registration fee.
Payment instructions can be found on the Registration Form or you can contact Symposia/Conferences Division on the below information.
Kindly take note that Workshops are for Physicians only.

We look forward to seeing you in the conference.

With our best regards,
Symposia/Conferences Division
Postgraduate Education & Academic Affairs
King Saud bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences
National Guard Health Affairs
Telephone No. 01-8011111 Ext. 48459 , 48461
Fax No. 01-2520040


للمزيد و للتسجيل /






الثلاثاء، 18 أكتوبر، 2011

Borderline Personality Disorder Treatment


By John M. Grohol, Psy.D.

Introduction

Borderline Personality Disorder is experienced in individuals in many different ways. Often, people with this disorder will find it more difficult to distinguish between reality from their own misperceptions of the world and their surrounding environment. While this may seem like a type of delusion disorder to some, it is actually related to their emotions overwhelming regular cognitive functioning.
People with this disorder often see others in “black-and-white” terms. Depending upon the circumstances and situation, for instance, a therapist can be seen as being very helpful and caring toward the client. But if some sort of difficulty arises in the therapy, or in the patient’s life, the person might then begin characterizing the therapist as “bad” and not caring about the client at all. Clinicians should always be aware of this “all-or-nothing” lability most often found in individuals with this disorder and be careful not to validate it.
Therapists and doctors should learn to be like a rock when dealing with a person who has this disorder. That is, the doctor should offer his or her stability to contrast the client’s lability of emotion and thinking. Many professionals are turned-off by working with people with this disorder, because it draws on many negative feelings from the clinician. These occur because of the client’s constant demands on a clinician, the constant suicidal gestures, thoughts, and behaviors, and the possibility of self-mutiliating behavior. These are sometimes very difficult items for a therapist to understand and work with.
Psychotherapy is nearly always the treatment of choice for this disorder; medications may be used to help stabilize mood swings. Controversy surrounds overmedicating people with this disorder.

Psychotherapy

Like with all personality disorders, psychotherapy is the treatment of choice in helping people overcome this problem. While medications can usually help some symptoms of the disorder, they cannot help the patient learn new coping skills, emotion regulation, or any of the other important changes in a person’s life.
An initially important aspect of psychotherapy is usually contracting with the person to ensure that they do not commit suicide. Suicidality should be carefully assessed and monitored throughout the entire course of treatment. If suicidal feelings are severe, medication and hospitalization should be seriously considered.
The most successful and effective psychotherapeutic approach to date has been Marsha Linehan’s Dialectical Behavior Therapy. Research conducted on this treatment have shown it to be more effective than most other psychotherapeutic and medical approaches to helping a person to better cope with this disorder. It seeks to teach the client how to learn to better take control of their lives, their emotions, and themselves through self-knowledge, emotion regulation, and cognitive restructuring. It is a comprehensive approach that is most often conducted within a group setting. Because the skill set learned is new and complex, it is not an appropriate therapy for those who may have difficulty learning new concepts.
Like all personality disorders, borderline personality disorder is intrinsically difficult to treat. Personality disorders, by definition, are long-standing ways of coping with the world, social and personal relationships, handling stress and emotions, etc. that often do not work, especially when a person is under increased stress or performance demands in their lives. Treatment, therefore, is also likely to be somewhat lengthy in duration, typically lasting at least a year for most.
Other psychological treatments which have been used, to lesser effectiveness, to treat this disorder include those which focus on social learning theory and conflict resolution. These types of solution-focused therapies, though, often neglect the core problem of people who suffer from this disorder — difficulty in expressing appropriate emotions (and emotional attachments) to significant people in their lives due to faulty cognitions.
Providing a structured therapeutic setting is important no matter which therapy type is undertaken. Because people with this disorder often try and “test the limits” of the therapist or professional when in treatment, proper and well-defined boundaries of your relationship with the client need to be carefully explained at the onset of therapy. Clinicians need to be especially aware of their own feelings toward the patient, when the client may display behavior which is deemed “inappropriate.” Individuals with borderline personality disorder are often unfairly discriminated against within the broad range of mental health professionals because they are seen as “trouble-makers.” While they may indeed need more care than many other patients, their behavior is caused by their disorder. Phillip W. Long, M.D. also notes that:
“The therapeutic alliance should form within the patient’s real experiences with the therapist and with the treatment. The therapist must be able to tolerate repeated episodes of primitive rage, distrust, and fear. Uncovering is to be avoided in favor of bolstering of ego defenses, in order to eventually allow the patient to be less anxious about potential fragmentation and loss. The goals of therapy should be in terms of life gains toward independent functioning, and not complete restructuring of the personality.”

Hospitalization

Hospitalization is often a concern with people who suffer from borderline personality disorder because they so often visit hospital emergency rooms and are sometimes seen on inpatient units because of severe depression ... 


For more :



الأحد، 7 أغسطس، 2011

مجموعة من التطبيقات لعلاج المصابين بالتوحد

1432/09/07
بدأت تنتشر وبشكل كبير في متجر ابل للتطبيقات وغيره من المواقع الالكترونية المخصصة للتطبيقات، برامج متنوعة لتعزيز مهارات المصاب بالتوحد.

وبينما يستخدم علاج النطق أو ما يسميه البعض أحيانا علاج التخاطب مع المصابين بالتوحد وذلك للتطوير من مهاراتهم اللغوية اللفظية وإكسابهم وسيلة للتواصل مع البيئة من حولهم، تم الاستعانة بوسائل تقنية عدة لتعزيز هذه المهارة منها طريقة لوحات التخاطب باستخدام الصور لنقل الأفكار. ومع وجود أجهزة حاسوبية تفاعلية تعمل باللمس مثل جهاز الآيباد، يمكن استخدام برامج مصممة لفئة المصابين بالتوحد في مجال التأهيل اللفظي.

على سبيل المثال هناك تطبيق (TapSpeak) والذي يعمل على أجهزة الآيباد يوفر لأخصائي علاج النطق بيئة متكاملة لتصميم لوحات التخاطب بأشكال وأصوات مختلفة، كما أن البرنامج يأتي بلغات عدة منها العربية.

الجدير بالذكر أن  التطبيقات المتاحة على أجهزة الآيباد والمخصصة للمصابين بالتوحد ليست محصورة فقط على التأهيل اللفظي، بل برامج متنوعة لتعزيز المهارات الأخرى لدى المصاب بالتوحد. على سبيل المثال، هناك تطبيق لمساعدة الأطفال على تعلم تهجئة الحروف عن طريق تتبع الإصبع على الشاشة. وتطبيق آخر للمساعدة على النطق الصحيح للكلمات. وأيضا تطبيق يمكن الآباء من استخدام الصور لمساعدة الطفل على فهم المهام والجداول الزمنية، مثل ارتداء ملابسه قبل تناول الإفطار ثم الصعود إلى الحافلة للذهاب إلى المدرسة.

وهناك موقع (hackingautism.org) يمكن للمهتمين بتطوير تطبيقات خاصة للمصابين بالتوحد مشاركة أفكارهم حول التقنيات الحديثة مثل استخدام شاشات اللمس في علاج التوحد، وهو بانتظار مساهمات وأفكار المبدعين لتطويره وإضافة الجديد إليه.
المصدر /



الجمعة، 1 يوليو، 2011

الاثنين، 27 يونيو، 2011

الاكتئاب المقنّع ... 90% من مرضاه يعُانون من التعب والإجهاد !

ليس لديه أعراض مزاجية وأعراضه العضوية غامضة لا تُعطي تشخيصاً محدداً1-2

الاكتئاب المقنّع ... 90% من مرضاه يعُانون من التعب والإجهاد !

د. ابراهيم الخضير
هذا النوع من الاكتئاب تكون الصورة العامة عبارة عن مشاكل عضوية ، وغالباً لا ينتبه أكثر العاملين في مجال الصحة العامة لأعراض الاكتئاب المقنّع ، نظراً لأن المريض بهذا النوع من الاكتئاب ليس لديه أعراض مزاجية كما أسلفنا ، وإنما هناك أعراض عضوية متنوعة لذلك فإن أكثر الأشخاص الذين يُعانون من الاكتئاب المقنّع يذهبون لمراجعة عيادات عضوية مثل عيادات الأعصاب ، عيادات القلب ، عيادات الجهاز الهضمي ، وغالباً تكون.
أكثر الأعراض التي يشكو منها الشخص الذي يعاني من الاكتئاب هو التعب والاجهاد. فحوالي 90% من الأشخاص الذين يُعانون من الاكتئاب المقنع يعُانون من التعب والاجهاد. عادةً يحصل الإجهاد والتعب في الصباح الباكر ، إذ يشعر المصاب بالتعب لحظة نهوضه من الفراش ، يشعر الشخص ذلك مهما حصل هذا الشخص المصاب من ساعات نوم في الليلة الماضية. يتضاءل التعب والاجهاد حتى يختفي خلال اليوم ، ولكن قد يُعاني الشخص من نوبات إجهاد وتعب مفاجئ خلال اليوم

اختبار الهشاشة النفسية - الاكتئاب

إن اختبار الهشاشة النفسية للاكتئاب يقيس عدة عناصر مسؤولة عن كون بعضنا أكثر هشاشة وقابلية للإصابة بالاكتئاب (أكثر الاضطرابات النفسية شيوعا في العالم) من البعض الآخر، وهو ما يساعد على تصميم البرامج العلاجية والوقائية.
النسخة الأصلية من الاختبار هي من إعداد فريق من العلماء ضمن مشروع مشترك بين جامعتي تمبل و وسكونسن، و يعمل حاليا  الأستاذ ياسر الجعيدي بالتعاون مع الدكتورة لورين ألوي - أستاذة علم النفس بجامعة تمبل - على تقنين النسخة العربية (وهي الثالثة بعد الفرنسية).

بعد انتهائك من الإجابة عن أسئلة الاختبار، سيصلك تقرير يتضمن درجتك في الاختبار، وتعريفا للهشاشة النفسية وشرحا لها، بالإضافة إلى منحك خيارات التواصل لمزيد من المعلومات والحصول على آخر المستجدات في مجال الدعم النفسي عموما، والهشاشة النفسية خصوصا.

للاجابة على الاختبار اضغط هنا


السبت، 11 يونيو، 2011

Helping young children overcome shyness

by John Malouff, Ph.D., J.D.

Senior Lecturer in Psychology


WHAT SHYNESS IS AND ISN'T

Shyness involves anxiety and behavioral inhibition in social situations (Leary, 1986). It occurs most frequently in situations that are novel or suggest evaluation of the person or situations where the person is conspicuous or others are intrusive (Buss, 1986; Crozier, 2001). Although all children may experience shyness sometimes, some children experience shyness to a debilitating degree. This document is about those children.
Young shy children often show an apparent eagerness to observe others combined with a reluctance to speak to or join the others (Asendorpf, 1993). For example, shy children may remain silent around unfamiliar others, even when spoken to. Shy children may refuse to enter a new setting such as a classroom without being accompanied by a parent. Shy children may refuse to participate in athletic or dance activities, they may look only at the ground when around unfamiliar individuals, and they may go to great lengths to avoid calling attention to themselves ("Don't whistle, dad; people will look at us").
Shy children want to interact with unfamiliar others but don't because of their fear. A different problem exists when a child simply prefers to be alone (Asendorpf, 1993). These loner children, who are rare, show little or no interest in observing others and little or no excitement when approached by others.

WHAT CAUSES SHYNESS

The causes of shyness have not been demonstrated adequately to justify any firm statements on the issue. However, shyness experts identify as possible causes (a) genes predisposing a person to shyness, (b) a less than firm attachment bond between parent and child, (c) poor acquisition of social skills, or (d) parents, siblings, or others harshly and frequently teasing or criticizing a child (Asendorpf, 1993; Sanson, Pedlam, Cann, Prior, & Oberklaid, 1996).

WHAT'S GOOD ABOUT SHYNESS

Shy children tend to engage in significantly less social misbehavior than other children (Sanson et al., 1996). This may occur because shy children care so much about what others think of them.

WHAT'S BAD ABOUT SHYNESS

Shyness experts vary in their views about whether childhood shyness leads to mental health problems later. However, the practical and emotional problems caused by shyness are apparent. As a practical matter, shy children obtain less practice of social skills and develop fewer friends. They tend to avoid activities, such as sports, drama, and debate, that would put them in the limelight. Shy children tend to be perceived as shy, unfriendly, and untalented, and they tend to feel lonely and have low self-esteem (Jones & Carpenter, 1986) and a higher than average level of gastrointestinal problems (Chung & Evans, 2000).  Shy children tend to become anxious teens (Prior, Smart, Sanson, & Oberklaid, 2000).   Shy adults tend to have smaller social networks and to feel less satisfied than others with their social support networks (Jones & Carpenter, 1986). I have known shy college students who never graduate because they fear taking a required public speaking class.
Many shy individuals think of their shyness as a significant problem that hinders them in myriad ways (Zimbardo, 1986). Fortunately, some individuals act less shy as they become older (Zimbardo, 1986). However, even these individuals may regret their prior shyness, thinking sadly of the social opportunities they missed.

WHAT PARENTS AND TEACHERS CAN DO TO HELP CHILDREN OVERCOME SHYNESS

There are many strategies that can be used to help children overcome shyness. Some strategies may be more effective with some children than with others. Some children may benefit substantially from regular application of a few of the strategies listed below. Other children may need many more strategies applied. I suggest trying as many strategies as possible for at least a month and continuing with those that seem promising with a particular child. Many of the strategies are worth continuing indefinitely because they are just principles of good parenting.
The strategies below are listed in order of logical application. After an explanation of the strategy, you will see a section labeled "Our Application." In that section I will describe how my wife, Nicola Schutte, Ph.D., and I applied the strategy to my four-year-old daughter, Elizabeth. For the full story of Elizabeth and how she overcame shyness with our help, see Elizabeth.

1. Tell the children about times when you acted bashful

Once shy children start feeling bad about being shy, they may enter a downward spiral of becoming less and less confident and having lower and lower self-esteem. Parents can help counter this unfortunate effect of shyness by disclosing the times when they acted shy themselves (Zimbardo, 1981, p. 166). Because children often view parents as powerful, god-like figures, the children will tend to feel better about their own shy behavior. If the parents then talk about how they became more outgoing (e.g., by setting a goal of acting more outgoing and pursuing it), the children will have a powerful model to follow. The beauty of using personal coping anecdotes to lead children is that there is not much for the children to resist. No one is telling them to do anything. The parents are just describing what they did that worked.
Our Application: I told Elizabeth about how I was afraid to talk to girls when I was a young teen and about how I was afraid to give speeches in class. I added that fortunately I got over those fears or I might never have become a professor and might never have married Elizabeth's mother. I don't know what effect, if any, that had, but I do know that Elizabeth often asks me to tell her about my childhood, indicating great interest.

2. Explain to the children how they will benefit from acting outgoing

Children who expect to benefit from a behavior tend to engage in the behavior (Pear & Martin, 1996, p. 111). The most convincing way for parents to tell children the value of acting outgoing is by giving personal examples, e.g., "To become a teacher I had to overcome my shyness because teaching requires a person to talk to new people almost every day." The parents can then explain the more immediate value to the child of outgoing behavior, such as making more friends, having more fun, and enjoying school and other social activities more.
Our Application: I told Elizabeth that she would make more friends and have more fun if she spoke to other kids. She obviously wanted to play with other kids, but she lacked the confidence.

3. Show empathy when the children feel afraid to interact

One way to help children begin to control their fear of certain social situations is to show empathy when they feel afraid to interact with others. So, if a child refuses out of shyness to go out on a field for soccer practice, a parent might say, "I get the sense you feel worried [self-conscious, shy, afraid] about going out there. I feel worried sometimes too - when I'm not sure what to do and other people are watching me." By showing empathy, a parent helps the child feel understood and accepted and also helps the child identify and talk about his or her emotions and start searching for a way to control them. See Rogers (1980, p. 156).
Our Application: I showed empathy at times when Elizabeth felt afraid - of anything. Most memorably, I told her once when she felt afraid of going to her first swimming lesson that I could tell that she felt afraid and that I too had felt afraid about swimming lessons. As soon as she heard that, she said, "I'll be brave," and she walked over to the pool. I also showed empathy when she entered a new situation, such as watching a child karate class. I said something along the lines of, " I can tell you feel excited - even nervous - about being here; I feel excited too."

4. Prevent labeling of the children as "shy"

When talking with others, parents sometimes say in front of a child that he or she is shy. Big mistake! Children who are told that they are shy tend to start thinking of themselves as shy and then fulfill the role, without making any effort to change. Wise parents never hang a negative label on their children. See Wicks-Nelson & Israel (1997, p. 98) regarding the risks of labeling.
Because shy behavior is so obvious in children, other children and adults often comment on it, saying something like, "Oh, she's shy." How do parents best handle statements by others that the child "is shy"? Try disagreeing in a good-natured way (with a smile) and offering a non-labeling alternative explanation such as that the child sometimes takes a while to warm up.
What do parents say then when their child fails out of shyness to respond to a question from someone else? There are many options. One is to prompt the child to speak. If that fails, just go on with the conversation.
Our Application: Because Elizabeth acted shy around unfamiliar people, adults often mentioned in front of her that she was "shy." I never agreed with anyone who described Elizabeth as shy in her presence. Instead, I usually said something like this: "Actually, she's quite outgoing around people she knows well." To further counter those comments, I told her how bold or outgoing she was whenever she did anything in the least bit bold or outgoing. So when she climbed a wall and jumped off, I told her she was "bold." When Elizabeth talked to unfamiliar people, I told her she was outgoing.

5. Set goals for more outgoing behavior and measure progress

A good deal of research supports the value of goal setting in improving performance of various types (Locke, 1996). The most useful goals are those that are measurable (quantifiable), challenging yet realistic, and are set with the involvement of the person whose performance (behavior) is in question. For many shy children, a realistic, challenging goal is to say at least one word to one new person every day. Other possibly appropriate goals might include speaking in front of a whole class, joining (even silently) in play with another child, or asking a teacher a question. Parents can help children see their progress by posting a chart at home that shows a star or a smile for each day the child achieved the goal. Children usually like putting up the sticker themselves.
Our Application: At the very start of the training program I set a goal for Elizabeth to talk with a new person every day. At the end of the day and often also in mid-day, I talked with Elizabeth about how many people she had talked to for the first time that day. I kept track of the results for several weeks until the behavior of speaking to unfamiliar people became fairly regular.

6. Set a model of outgoing behavior

Children learn a great deal through observing the behavior of parents and others (Bandura, 1984). In fact, count on children to do more what a parent does than what a parent suggests. Parents who never invite anyone over to the house, who never take phone calls, and who never speak to strangers may tend to have shy or nonsocial children. Parents who want their children to act more outgoing are wise to monitor their own behavior and act outgoing whenever possible in front of the children. Invite friends and family members over, visit neighbors, and speak to pleasant looking strangers in grocery store lines. Most importantly, talk with children the age of your child -- join them in their games. If your child won't speak or join in, don't worry - you're setting a model that shows that acting outgoing is something you do with kids and that the kids usually respond well. You're also showing your child how to interact with others. If your child becomes agitated at your behavior (because of embarrassment), show empathy and end the interaction in a socially skilled way. But repeat that type of interaction again and again, gradually increasing the lengths of the interactions over a course of days or weeks.
Our Application: I set a model of outgoing behavior. I had never been one to speak to strangers, but that changed in this program. I spoke to adults and children in stores and on playgrounds. Also, my wife and I invited more friends to our house.

7. Expose the children to unfamiliar settings and people

The more practice shy children get interacting with unfamiliar people the faster the shyness will decrease. However, the exposure will work best if it is gradual (Sarafino, 1086, p. 110). Whenever possible, let the child get used to the setting and people before you push the child to interact. Help the child develop confidence in one new setting at a time, little by little. The setting could be a favorite yogurt shop where the child gradually begins to place his or her own order. The setting could be a neighborhood playground where the child eventually asks an often seen child what his name is. The key is for the shy child to visit the setting and, if possible, certain individuals, repeatedly, gradually acting more and more outgoing.
Expose the child to as many types of settings and people as possible. Make sure to expose shy children frequently to younger children. As Zimbardo and Radl (1981) and Honig (1987) noted, some shy children show more confidence in interacting with younger children. Also, expose shy children at home to new people who are invited over. At home is where shy children tend to feel most confident.
Our Application: I took Elizabeth to more new places than ever, including child-activity programs in libraries and bookstores. I increased efforts to arrange play dates with other children. I took Elizabeth with me to work at times, and I invited neighbor children and parents to the house

8. Prompt the children to interact with others

Prompt shy children to speak, join, or interact with others whenever there is any chance that the children will do so. Specific prompts work best (Martin & Pear, 1996, p. 37), e.g., "Tell her your name is Margaret" or "say good-bye." If the child won't say anything to a person, try prompting the child to wave hello or good-bye. A wave is a step in the right direction. Another good strategy, which might be called triangulation, involves speaking to another child, then asking your child what he or she thinks about something relating to the conversation. For example:...
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الثلاثاء، 7 يونيو، 2011

Cognitive Therapy Helps Depressed Drug Abusers

Treating mood disorder key to helping addicts stay off drugs, researchers say


MONDAY, June 6 (HealthDay News) -- A new study suggests that cognitive behavioral therapy -- a type of therapy oriented toward problem-solving -- may help the depressed in residential treatment programs for drug and alcohol abuse.
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Many people with substance disorders and depression fail to receive treatment for both conditions. "The consequences of this unmet need are great," the study authors write. "The interactive nature of the two disorders leads to poorer depression and substance abuse treatment outcomes compared with the outcomes when only one disorder is present."
Researchers led by Dr. Katherine E. Watkins of the RAND Corp. studied patients at behavioral health services facilities in Los Angeles between 2006 and 2009. Every four months, the facilities alternated between providing regular care for substance abuse and care plus cognitive behavioral therapy, which aims to change dysfunctional behaviors through changing the way people think about things.
About 300 patients took part; most, on average, were severely depressed.
After three months, nearly 56 percent of those in the group with extra treatment had minimal symptoms of depression, compared to only about a third in the group that got regular care; at six months, those numbers were nearly 64 percent vs. 44 percent.
Among patients no longer living in a residential treatment facility, those in the group with added cognitive-behavioral therapy had fewer days of drug abuse and fewer drinking days than did those in the control group.

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